Almost simultaneously, when the ancient Egyptians were building their first great pyramids and the Mesopotamians were constructing monumental temples and ziggurats, the Harappans of South Asia were erecting huge fired-brick dwelling complexes and cutting elaborate canal systems. Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of the first large-scale urban agricultural societies in the world, with between 1 and 5 million inhabitants in five central cities. The abrupt decline of this civilization, albeit ostensibly, remained one of the great mysteries of the world then.
Except for the physical excavations, which have unearthed exquisite and obscure artifacts discovered to date, there were the small square soapstone (soapstone) seals engraved with human or animal motifs in addition to a large number seals bearing pictographic inscriptions generally considered a form of writing. or scenario. Clay and stone tablets discovered at Harappa, carbon dated to 3300-3200 BC. AD, contained trident-shaped and plant-shaped markings. It has been heavily speculated whether real writing has been found, or whether the symbols found have similarities to what became the Indus script. Nevertheless, these excavations only established the general knowledge and lifestyle of the inhabitants of the Indus Valley, nothing authentic material was available about the identity of the inhabitants, who they were, where from. they came, etc.
Poor early excavation techniques at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro and the 19th century destruction of much of Harappa had left many pertinent questions unanswered. This lamentable dearth of scientific evidence became a handy tool in the hands of left-wing and evangelical historians to float their empirical theory that the ancient Indians (Aryans) came from western Harappa, resulting in the creation of a totally misleading story. In line with left-leaning armchair theorists-historians, few Dravidian theorists operating in several southern states have pursued this theory to disassociate the culture, traditions, and language of ancient Bharat from the states. They propagated the myth that the “Aryans” invaded the Dravidians who were the “original” inhabitants of the region around Harappa and drove them further south. Since no archaeological or genetic data corroborated this claim, they therefore empirically proposed the migration myth that ancient Western Iranians migrated to the Harappan region.
Initially, archaeological excavations revealed the mature phase of Harappan represented by a planned township having mud-brick houses as well as fired-brick houses with proper drainage system.
A cylinder seal with 5 Harappan characters on one side and an alligator symbol on the other is an important find from this site. The ceramics industry represented by red ceramics, which included pedestal dishes, vases, perforated pots, among others. Other antiquities, notably, blades; terracotta and shell bracelets, beads of semi-precious stones and copper objects; animal figurines, toy wagon frame and terracotta wheel; bone spikes; seals and stamps inscribed in steatite. A sacrificial pit for animals lined with mud bricks and triangular and circular fire altars on the mud floor were also excavated, signifying the ritual system of the Harappans.
Excavations have yielded some extensive burials, which certainly belong to a very late period, perhaps to medieval times.
With a view to uncovering the truth behind earlier archaeological finds emanating from primitive excavation techniques and more so when far more sophisticated techniques and suitable gadgets become available, the Indian government expert archaeologists have identified four sites in Hastinapur (Uttar Pradesh), Shivsagar (Assam), Dholavira (Gujarat) and Adichanallur (in Tamil Nadu) for develop them as iconic sites with on-site museums. This was all a follow up to the startling findings from Rakhigarhi (in Hissar district of Haryana), which has now been acclaimed as the largest Harappan site in the Indian subcontinent. Other major sites of Harappan civilization on the Indian subcontinent are Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Ganveriwala in Pakistan and Dholavira (Gujarat) in India.
At Rakhigarhi, the excavations are underway to trace its beginnings and study its gradual evolution from 6000 BCE (pre-Harappan phase) to 2500 BCE. The site was excavated by a Mr. Amarendra Nath of ASI in conjunction with Deccan College and the Department of Archeology and Museums of the Government of Haryana. Professor Vasant Shinde of the Post-Graduate and Research Institute at Deccan College led the team of excavators. Dr. Niraj Rai, then from the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad and Prof. David Reich from Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, USA, led the team of genetic scientists for the studies on the ancient DNA.
The excavations provided important new information about the Indus Civilization, which revealed that the Harappan was a dynamic and complex socio-cultural phenomenon, albeit regionally differentiated, but sharing some common material cultural attributes. Sustained research in the cities of the Indus has allowed scientists to better understand their growth, their economies and the societies they developed. Concentrated research into certain aspects of Harappan technology has revealed tremendous sophistication in Harappan craftsmanship, a notable example being the sandstone bracelets of Mohenjo-daro.
Although hundreds of Indus Valley skeletons have been discovered, the region’s hot climate is rapidly destroying genetic material that has helped trace the history of other ancient civilizations. According to recent knowledge, scientists, who included Harvard University geneticist David Reich and archaeologist Vasant Shinde of Deccan College in Pune, India, decided to try the promising technique to analyze human remains found during excavations. They found that the petrous bone of the inner ear contained an unusually high amount of DNA, allowing them to locate usable genetic material even in otherwise degraded skeletons. Thus, they sampled more than 60 skeletal pieces, including many petrous bones, before they could extract the ancient DNA. Then they had to sequence the sample more than 100 times to piece together a relatively complete genome.
The Rakhigarhi research project reveals that an Indus Valley Civilization genome comes from a population that is the largest source for South Asians. The research authors also show that the population has no detectable ancestry among steppe or Anatolian herders and Iranian farmers, suggesting that agriculture in South Asia came from local foragers rather than large-scale migration from the West. Recent findings of DNA from skeletal remains extracted from the Harappan cemetery of Rakhigarhi revealed that the inhabitants of the Harappan civilization had an independent origin. This study thus negates the empirical theory offered by the left-oriented vested historians’ theory that the Harappans had steppe pastoral ancestry or ancient Iranian farmers. After these authentic discoveries, they must all close their shop. The best result of the ongoing research is that it establishes beyond doubt that the basic DNA of all people in this great country, regardless of religious affiliation, caste, color or place of residence , whether east, west, north or south, is the same. Thus, it is the imperative need of the hour to try to unite people from all regions to unite and stand together in the development of this nation and vehemently negate the false propaganda of vested interests based on their theories based on the negative agenda.
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